February 22, 2020
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Bayesian SEM (BSEM)
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Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM)

ESEM Theory

  • Asparouhov, T. & Muthén, B. (2009). Exploratory structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 16, 397-438. Contact the second author. Paper can be downloaded from here.

ESEM Applications

  • Marsh, H.W., Guo, J., Dicke, T., Parker, P.D., & Craven, R.G. (2020). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM), and Set-ESEM: Optimal Balance Between Goodness of Fit and Parsimony. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 55:1, 102-119. DOI: 10.1080/00273171.2019.1602503

  • Guo, J., Marsh, H. W., Parker, P. D., Dicke, T., Lüdtke, O., & Diallo, T. M. O. (2019). A Systematic Evaluation and Comparison Between Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling and Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, Advance Online Publication.

  • Howard, J., Gagné, M., Morin, A.J.S., Wang, Z.N., & Forest, J. (Accepted, 23 March 2016). Using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling to test for a continuum structure of motivation. Journal of Management.

  • Vazsonyi, A. T., Ksinan, A., Mikuska, J. & Jiskrova, G. (2015). The Big Five and adolescent adjustment: An empirical test across six cultures. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 234-244. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.049. View abstract.

  • Morin, A.J.S., Arens, A.K., & Marsh, H.W. (Accepted, 22 August 2014). A Bifactor Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling framework for the identification of distinct sources of construct-relevant psychometric multidimensionality. Structural Equation Modeling. Download paper. Download supplement. Download associated webnote.

  • Aichholzer, J. (2014). Random intercept EFA of personality scales. Journal of Research in Personality, 53: 1-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2014.07.001

  • Kevin J. Grimm , Joel S. Steele , Nilam Ram & John R. Nesselroade (2013) Exploratory Latent Growth Models in the Structural Equation Modeling Framework, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 20:4, 568-591, DOI: 10.1080/10705511.2013.824775.

  • Herrmann, A., & Pfister, H. (2013). Simple measures and complex structures: Is it worth employing a more complex model of personality in Big Five inventories? Journal of Research in Personality. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2013.05.004.

  • Morin, A.J.S., Marsh, H.W., & Nagengast, B. (2013). Chapter 10. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling. In Hancock, G. R., & Mueller, R. O. (Eds.). (2013). Structural equation modeling: A second course (2nd ed.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc. Contact the first author. Supplementary materials used in this chapter can be found here and here.

  • Marsh, H. W., Nagengast, B., & Morin, A. J. S. (2012). Measurement invariance of big-five factors over the life span: ESEM tests of gender, age, plasticity, maturity, and LaDolce Vita effects. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1037/a0026913. Contact the first author.

  • Marsh, H. W., Lüdtke, O., Muthén, B., Asparouhov, T., Morin, A. J. S., Trautwein, U. & Nagengast, B. (2010). A new look at the big-five factor structure through exploratory structural equation modeling. Psychological Assessment, 22, 471-491. Contact the first author.

  • Marsh, H.W., Muthén, B., Asparouhov, A., Lüdtke, O., Robitzsch, A., Morin, A.J.S., & Trautwein, U. (2009). Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, Integrating CFA and EFA: Application to Students' Evaluations of University Teaching. Structural Equation Modeling, 16, 439-476. Contact the first author. Paper can be downloaded from here.

  • Exploratory structural equation modeling. Recorded May 2, 2008. Click here to download the pdf and watch the movie.

  • Click here for the Version 5.1 Language Addendum and Examples Addendum covering ESEM.

For more information, visit our General Description page.